Hypertension and Isolated Office Hypertension in HIV-Infected Patients Determined by Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: Prevalence and Risk Factors

Download Article

DOI: 10.21522/TIJPH.2013.05.01.Art008

Authors : Orji Ikechukwu Anthony, Bernardino JoseIgnacio, Mora Marta, Zamora FranciscoXavier, Arribas Blanca, Montes MariaLuisa, Pascual-Pareja Francisco, Jose BelenSan, Peña JoseMaria, Arribas JoseRamon


This review extensively evaluated literatures related to the subject, and assessed the structure, accuracy currency, authority, relevance, objectivity and stability of the article. Other sections assessed were the analysis of the tables, appraisal of the recent advances on the topic in addition to the credibility and accessibility of the article. The study has its objective as determining the prevalence as well as the risk factors of hypertension and isolated office hypertension (IOH), among people living with HIV/AIDS. The study was a cross-sectional study that used a 24-hour ambulatory blood monitor to measure the blood pressure of the participants. A prevalence of 14.8% for hypertension and 5.5% for isolated office hypertension was recorded in the study amongst others. The study also found hypertension to be strongly associated with family history of hypertension, age, male gender and number of antiretroviral regimens. Largely, the article is an objective, credible and relevant scholarly piece which has contributed significantly to the body of knowledge in this important field of HIV/AIDS. Hypertension with its attendant cardiovascular morbidities/mortalities expected in the rising aging population of HIV infected patients underscores the importance and timely nature of this work. It will be useful to clinicians, researchers, academicians and donor agencies sponsoring HIV/AIDS programs. The article is current, accessible and relevant for clinical services, further research, academic purposes and policy decision making in HIV/AIDS programs.

Keywords: Hypertension, Isolated office hypertension, Prevalence, Risk factors, HIV infected patients, Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring.


[1].Avolio A. (2008). Central Aortic Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Risk: A Paradigm Shift? Hypertension, (51), pp. 1470-1471.

[2].Baekken M, Os I, Sandvik L, Oektedalen O. (2008). Hypertension in an urban HIV-positive population compared with the general population: influence of combination antiretroviral therapy. Journal of Hypertension.26(11):2126-33. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e32830ef5fb

[3].Bavinger C, Bendavid E, Niehaus K, Olshen R.A, Olkin I, Sundaram V, Wein N, Holodniy M, Hou N, Owens D.K. and Desai M. (2013). Risk of Cardiovascular Disease from Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV: A Systematic Review; 8(3): e59551. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059551

[4].Bergersen  B. M, Sandvik L, Dunlop O, Birkel and K, Bruun J.N. (2003). Prevalence of Hypertension in HIV-Positive Patients on Highly Active Retroviral Therapy (HAART) Compared with HAART-Naïve and HIV-Negative Controls: Results from a Norwegian Study of 721 Patients. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 12(22): pp731-736. Retrieved from 


[5].Black H.R, Townsend R.R. (2015). Central blood pressure measurement: any added value? Medscape cardiology, retrieved from 


[6].Boutouyrie P, Achouba A, Trunet P, Laurent S. (2010). Amlodipine-Valsartan Combination Decreases Central Systolic Blood Pressure More Effectively Than the Amlodipine-Atenolol Combination: The EXPLOR Study. Hypertension, (55), pp. 1314-1322.

[7].Carmine G, Raffaele B, Adriana G, Stefano G, Pietro F, Paolo S, Gaetano F. (2003). Hypertension among HIV patients: prevalence and relationships to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Journal of Hypertension: 7 (21): pp 1377-1388. Retrieved from: 


[8].Irish heart foundation. 


[9].O’Brien E, Mee F, Atkins N, O’Malley K. (1991) Accuracy of the spacelabs 90207 determined by the British Hypertension Society Protocol. Journal of hypertension.9 (5), pp s25-s31. Retrieved from 


[10]. O'Brien E, Waeber B, Parati G, Staessen J, & Myers M.G. (2001). Blood pressure measuring devices: recommendations of the European Society of Hypertension. 322 (7285): 531- 536. Retrieved from 


[11]. Roman M.J, Devereux R.B, Kizer J.R, Okin P.M, Lee E.T, Wang W, Umans J.G, Calhoun D. and Howard B.V. (2009). High Central Pulse Pressure Is Independently Associated With Adverse Cardiovascular Outcome: The Strong Heart Study. Journal of American College of Cardiologist, (54), pp. 1730-1734.

[12]. Saves M, Chene G, Ducimetiere P.(2003). Risk factors for coronary heart disease in patients treated for human immunodeficiency virus infection compared with the general population. Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases. (37): pp292-298. Retrieved from: cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/37/2/292

[13]. SunTech Medical and AtCor Medical (2015).Retrieved from 


[14]. Trudel X, Milot A, Brisson C. (2013) Persistence and Progression of Masked Hypertension: A 5-Year Prospective Study.International Journal of Hypertension. Volume 2013, pp 1-7, doi.org/10.1155/2013/836387 Uscom (2014). The measure of life. Retrieved from